Socio Economic Barriers Young Females Face in Accessing Technical Vocational Education and Training (Tvet) in Rwanda
Polycarpe Nshimirimana1, Mary Damas Kitula2
1Polycarpe Nshimirimana*, The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
2Mary Damas Kitula, Professor, The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
Manuscript received on August 08, 2020. | Revised Manuscript received on August 13, 2020. | Manuscript published on August 15, 2020. | PP: 28-32 | Volume-4 Issue-12, August 2020. | Retrieval Number: 100.1/ijmh.L10840841220 | DOI: 10.35940/ijmh.L1084.0841220
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© The Authors. Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: The objective of this study was to Assess the extent to which the female household’s socio-economic capacity affects enrolment in TVET” in Rwanda. Females have been sensitized on the availability, benefits of TVET, and that most of them meet the required qualifications to be enrolled and yet the uptake of females to TVET remains low. Rwandans are classified in community socio economic categories known as Ubudehe. The latter refers to the long-standing Rwandan practice and culture of collective action and mutual support to solve problems within a community. It allocates each household to one of four income and poverty-related categories as basis to access mainly public services including not limited to TVET. The study analyzed the relationship of the Household socio economic status and enrolment of females in TVET in Rwanda to attempt to answer why females are not embracing TVET as a promising avenue of acquisition of professional skills. The study used both qualitative and quantitative-triangulation methodology. The study used questionnaires, FGDs, Interviews and secondary data as data sources. The respondents included 400 females, female’s parents, local leaders, TVET and IPRCS staff for the KIIs. The research performed a simple linear regression analysis to find out predictor factors to enroll in TVET hence access to TVET that supplemented the correlation analysis.The study found that the household socio economic status showed very strong correlation to the enrolment of females with a p <.001 with a negative Pearson’s coefficient of r, -.628 **. The study showed that household socio economic status was statistically significant predictor of the enrolment of female in Technical Vocational Education Training, β. -.415, t (-16.090), p<.001, R² = .394. The results revealed that the higher the level of the household socio economic status, the less the enrolment of females in the TVET Education. The results indicated that the more a household increased income and became wealthier the more negative perception “labelling TVET as Second best option therefore the less their kids joined TVET. The study indicated that TVET scholarship loan plays an important role in the enrolment of Females in TVET. However, it recommends the Government to adjust or remove the wealth classification (Ubudehe category) from the list of criteria considered for a student to acquire a TVET scholarship loan.
Keywords: Socio Economic Barriers, Access to TVET, Rwanda.