The Socio-Cultural Barriers Young Females Face in Accessing Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET)in Rwanda.
Polycarpe Nshimirimana1, Mary Damas Kitula2
1Polycarpe Nshimirimana*, The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
2Mary Damas Kitula, Professor, The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
Manuscript received on August 08, 2020. | Revised Manuscript received on August 13, 2020. | Manuscript published on August 15, 2020. | PP: 33-40 | Volume-4 Issue-12, August 2020. | Retrieval Number: 100.1/ijmh.K10540741120 | DOI: 10.35940/ijmh.K1054.0841220
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© The Authors. Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the socio-cultural factors that prevent females from accessing Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Rwanda. Females have been sensitized on the availability and benefits of TVET, to meet the required qualifications in order to be enrolled and yet the uptake of females to TVET remains low. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the socio-cultural factors that prevent girls from enrolling in TVET and establish the level of awareness of girls and parents about TVET and its benefits. The study answered why females are not embracing TVET as a promising avenue of education. The study used a case study strategy and applied both qualitative and quantitative approach (triangulation) at levels of data collection and analysis. The study used questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Interviews and secondary data as data sources. The respondents included 400 females, parents and local leaders, TVET and integrated Polytechnic Regional Centers (IPRCs) staff for the Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). The research performed a simple linear regression analysis to find out predictor factors to enroll in TVET hence access to TVET that supplemented the correlation analysis. The findings of the study revealed social and cultural factors that prevent girls from enrolling in TVET include the belief that males have greater innate technical capacity than females and are thus predisposed to excel at programs with sciences and Mathematics backgrounds. Male Inheritance defined as investing in male for the continuity of the family, parent’s belief of females’ ineptitude at TVET labeled as male reserved areas, physical infrastructure variables such as distance from home to Training centers and female boarding facilities are additional factors which indicated a statistical significance with p <0.001. The study results indicated that the higher level of education of parents, the lower the enrolment of females in TVET Education. Many educated parents believe that TVET was for the failures and poor families. The study indicated that there was a discrepancy between the high expectations of enrolling in TVET prior to enrolling rated at 90%, 91.5%, 61.5 %, 84.5 %, 79 % compared to the actual benefits after enrolling rated at 32%, 37%, 50.5%, 62.0%, 54.5%. The study showed the lack of information and underestimation of the value of TVET however increased access to information among females and parents led to increased enrolment of females in TVET schools.
Keywords: Access to TVET, Socio-Cultural Factors, Rwanda.