Abstract: Inclusive curriculum makes a system where every child has an opportunity to enhance the quality of lives through the education. Educators and pupils are the central aspects for developing an adapted curriculum. The trend of inclusion opens a window through which humanistic perspective takes place in education. The curriculum relation model (CRM), resource-based themes of interaction, ecological model, information processing model, enrichment perspectives are used here to formulate an adapted curriculum.
Keywords: Inclusion, adapted curriculum, pupils, curriculum relation model.
1. UNESCO, The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education, UN, 1994.
2. B. H. Johnsen, Assessment as part of curricula for the plurality of individual learning needs, Lecturing paper- Master of Philosophy in Special Needs Education, Oslo: University of Oslo, Unpublished, 2003.
3. G. Lindsay, “Inclusive education: A critical perspective”, British Journal of Special Education, 30, 3-12, 2003.
4. B. H. Johnsen, “Curricula for the plurality of individual learning needs: Some thoughts concerniing practical innovation towards an inclusive class and school”, Johnsen, Berit H. & Skjørten, Miriam D. (eds), Education-special needs education: An introduction.255-303, Oslo: Unipub, 2001.
5. H. Rye, “Helping children and families with special needs: A resource-oriented approach”, Johnsen, Berit H. & Skjørten, Miriam D. (eds), Education-special needs education: An introduction. Oslo: Unipub, 2001.
6. M. Cole, Cultural psychology. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
7. B. Rogoff, Apprenticeship in thinking: cognitive development in social context. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
8. L. Vygotsky, Mind in society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.
9. U. Bronfenbrenner, The ecology of human development: Experiemnts by nature and design, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
10. S. Kirk, J. J. Gallagher, M. R. Coleman, & N. Anastasiow, Educating exceptional children. 13th ed. Wadsworth, p. 17, 2012.
11. B. H. Johnsen, Suitably adapted education in an inclusive educational setting or A curricular approach to inclusive education- Some thoughts concrning practice, innovation and research, Annual International conference of Integration and Inclusion Studies, University of Leipzig, 2013.
12. K. Hundeide, Innføring i ICDP Programmet, Oslo: International Child Development Programme (ICDP), 24, 2007.
13. E. Befring, “The enrichment perspective: A special educational approach to an inclusive school”, Johnsen, Berit H. & Skjørten, Miriam D. (eds), Education-special needs education: An introduction. 49-64, Oslo: Unipub, 2001.
14. B. Rogoff, The cultural nature of human development. Oxford University Press, 2003.
15. T. Booth et al., Index for inclusion: Developing, learning and participation in schools, UK: Centre for studies on Inclusive Education, 2000.
16. J. Bruner, Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
17. R. E. Slavin, Educational psychology: Theory and practice, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, retrieved from https://www.ablongman.com, , 2003.
18. J. Bruner, Toward a theory of instruction, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.
19. R. E. Slavin, Educational psychology: Theory into practice, 4th ed, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1994.
20. G. Wells and G. Claxton, Learning for life in the 21st century: Socio cultural perspectives on the future of education, Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
21. M. Dalen, Focus on co-teaching as a special education provision, Norway: National post-graduate college of special education, 1982.
22. M. Friend et al., Co-teaching: An illustration of the complexity of collaboration in special education, Journal on Educational and Psychological Consultation, 20, 9-27, Taylor and Francis Group, 2010.
23. H. Rye, “The foundation of an optimal psychosocial development”, Johnsen, Berit H. (ed.), Socio-emotional growth and development of learning strategies, 215-228, Oslo: Unipub-Oslo University Press, 2005.
24. K. Eklindh and J. V. den Brule-Balescut, “The right to education for persons with disabilities: Reflections on UNESCO’s role from Salamanca to the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities”, Svolainen, H., Matero, M., & Kokkala, H. (eds.), When all means all: Experiences in three African countries with EFA and children with disabilities, 19-38, Helsinki: Ministry of Foreign Affaiirs of Finland, Development policy information unit, 2006.
25. J. L. Bigge and C. S. Stump, Curriculum, assessment and instruction for students with disabilities, Wadsworth, 1999.
Abstract: The present study intends to measure the effect of job design which consist of (Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback) on employee performance which consist of (High Motivation, High Quality of Work, High Satisfaction, accept more responsibility, Low Absenteeism and Turnover). The population study consist of all the employee who are working in private Health Care Organizations in Middle region Amman-Jordan Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents from the various Hospitals, (450) respondent was randomly selecte from the study population from the private Hospitals, of which four hundred ten (410) was retrieved shaped .91% of total study population. The model analysis of Regression (Enter Method) was to analyze data and test the mentioned hypothesis to decide the effect of job design which consist of (Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback) on the performance of employee in private health care organizations which consist of (High Motivation, High Quality of Work, High Satisfaction, accept more responsibility, Low Absenteeism and Turnover) .
The result shows the following:
A- The determination factor (R) is (.923), This means that the change one unit in job design as a whole will increase the employee performance (92%).
B- The effect degree B (beta) is (.71), This means that the change in characteristics of job design one unit will increase Employee Performance (.71).
C- From the findings of the regression analysis(Enter method), The R square value is 0.851 which clearly suggests that there is a strong relationship between Job Design and Job Employee Performance, This indicates that the job design which consist of (Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback) share a variation of 85.1 % of employee performance in private health care organizations which consist of((High Motivation, High Quality of Work, High Satisfaction, accept more responsibility, Low Absenteeism and Turnover)
D- The remaining 15% implies that there are other factors that have not been studied which affect Employee Performance.
E- So Job Design is responsible or can interpret (85%) 0f employee performance in private Health Organizations.
Keywords: (Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback), (R) is (.923), B (beta) is (.71), Hospitals, (450), High Quality of Work, High Satisfaction, accept more responsibility,
1. Al-Ahmadi, H. (2009). Factors Affecting Performance of Hospital Nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 22, 40-54.
2. Champoux JE. 1992. A multivariate test of the job characteristics theory of work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior 12: 431-446.
3. Elkins, T. J., & Phillips, J. S. (2000). Job context, selection decision outcome, and the perceived. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 479–484.
4. Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta‐analysis.Personnel Psychology, 40, 287‐322.
5. Griffin, R. W. (1987). Toward an integrated theory of task. Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 79–120.
6. Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and motivation. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 393–417.
7. Grag, P., & Rastogi, R. (2005). A New Model for Job Design: Motivating employee’s Performance. Journal of Management Development, 25(6), 572–587.
8. Gilbreth, F. B. (1911). Motion Study, Van Nostrand. Princeton, NJ.
9. Grag, P., & Rastogi, R. (2005). A New Model for Job Design: Motivating employee’s Performance. Journal of Management Development, 25(6), 572–587.
10. Grag, P., & Rastogi, R. (2005). A New Model for Job Design: Motivating employee’s Performance. Journal of Management Development, 25(6), 572–587.
11. Geister, S., Konradt, U., & Hertel, G. (2006). Effects of process feedback on motivation, satisfaction and performance in virtual teams. Small Group Research, 37(5), 459–489.
12. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organization commitment in human service organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 3(3), 61–81.
13. Holbeche, L., & Springett, N. (2004). In Search of Meaning in the Workplace. St Leonard's Forest: Roffey Park Institute.
14. Hackman JR, Oldham GR. 1980. Work Redesign. Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA.
15. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The Motivation to Work. NewYork, NY: Wiley.
16. Huselid, A., Becker, M. (1997). The impact of high performance work systems, implementation effectiveness. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, 144–148.
17. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, R. G. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250–79.
18. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159–170.
19. Hyatt, T. A., & Prawitt, D. F. (2011). Does Congruence between Audit Structure and Auditors' Locus of ControlAffect Job Performance. The Accounting Review, 76(2), 263–274.
20. Hackman, J. R. (1980). Work redesign and motivation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 11,445–455.
21. Schabracq, J. A. M. Winnubst & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The Handbook of Work and HealthPsychology (2nd ed.).
22. Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–84.
23. Love, P. E. D., & Edwards, D. J. (2005). Taking the pulse of UK construction project managers’ health: influence of job demands, job control and social support on psychological well-being. Engineering, Construction, and Architectural Management, 12(1), 88–101.
24. Locke, E., Shaw, K., Saari, L., & Latham, G. (1981). Goal-setting and task performance: 1969–1980.Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125–152.
25. Lam, S. S. K., Yik, M. S. M., & Schaubroeck, J. (2002). Responses to formal performance appraisal feedback the role of negative affectivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 192–201.
26. Lowry, P. E. (1994). Selection methods: comparison of assessment centers with personnel records evaluations.Public Personnel Management, 23(3), 383–95.
27. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1297–1349.
28. Mueller, B. P. (1994). Do Supervisors and Subordinate and See Eye to Eye on Job Enrichment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 13(2).101.
29. Peter, C. (1993). Are Skill Requirements Rising? Evidence from Production and Clerical. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46(3), 515–530.
30. Sageer, D. S. (2012). Identification of Variables Affecting Employee Satisfaction and their impact on the organization. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, Volume 5 (Issue 1), 32-39.
31. Spector PE, Jex SM. 1991. Relations of job characteristics from multiple data sources with employee affect, absence, turnover intentions, and health. Journal of Applied Psychology 76: 46-53.
32. Spector PE, Dwyer DJ, Jex SM. 1988. Relation of job stressors to affective, health, and performance outcomes: a comparison of multiple data sources. Journal of Applied Psychology 73: 11-19.
33. Tanner, M. (1998). Self-managed groups do it for Do-It-All. Human Resource International Digest, 6(4), 12–32.
34. Taylor, F. W. (1947). The Principles of Scientific Management. New York, NY: Harper and Brothers.
35. Taber, T. D., & Taylor, E. (1990). A review and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Personnel Psychology, 43, 467–497.