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Volume-2 Issue-1, December 2015, ISSN: 2394-0913 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Regina Okyere-Dankwa, Smile Gavua Dzisi, Seth Okyere-Dankwa

Paper Title:

Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Growth of Women-Owned Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Eastern Region, Ghana

Abstract:  All over the world entrepreneurship has emerged as gainful employment and a means of helping women to improve their economic and social status and also to assert themselves in the business world. This paper ascertains the implications of socio-cultural factors on growth of women owned small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in Eastern Region. Growth of small and medium size enterprise depicts increase in sales, profits, employees, production and service lines. The study used descriptive survey as the research design involving a target population of 390 women owned micro and small entrepreneurs drawn from manufacturing, agriculture, commerce and services sectors in Eastern Region. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to form a sample of 194 women entrepreneurs. Simple random sampling was applied on the sample to select the respondents from each sector. Questionnaires and observation guide were used to collect data which was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results suggested that socio-cultural factors positively influenced the growth of women-owned SMEs. The study recommended for the government continuously review laws pertaining to women’s rights, efforts to be made to educate both women and men on their respective rights while ensuring full implementation of the new bills to empower women. Special programmes to train, build capacity and mentor women particularly in entrepreneurship should be put in place to change women’s mindset to make enterprises owned by women more competitive while the government should continuously work towards providing conducive business environment.

 Entrepreneurship, Eastern Region, Small Medium Size Enterprise, Socio-cultural.


1.       Affholder, J., & Box, D.M. (2004). Struggles of Female Entrepreneurs .Allied Academics International Conference. Proceedings of the Academy of Entrepreneurship, 10(1):102-150.
2.       Arora, A., &Arora, F. (2003. Licensing the market for technology, Journal of Economic. Behavior and organization 72(1), 274-289.

3.       Carter, N. (2003). The Career Reasons of Nascent Entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 7 (18): 13- 39.Chowdhury. A. (2011). Socio-Economic Impact of Women Entrepreneurship in Sylhet City. Bangladesh. Shahjalal University of Science and Technology.

4.       Cromie, S. and Birley, S. (1992). Networking by Female Business Owners in Northern Ireland. Journal of Business Venturing, May 1992, 7(3): 237-251.

5.       Dovi, E. (2006). Tapping women’s entrepreneurship in Ghana: Access to credit, technology vital for breaking into manufacturing. Africa Renewal: Washington.

6.       Fening, F. A (2012). Impact of Quality Management Practices on the performance and Growth of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3, (13), 1-13

7.       Fening, F. A., Pesakovic, G. & Amania, P. (2008). Relatioship between Quality Management Practices  and the Performance of Small and Medium Size Enterprises In Ghana. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 7 (25),694- 708

8.       Ghana Statistical Service (2008), Ghana Living Standards Survey: Report of 5th round (GLSS 5)

9.       Harris, M., Grubb, W. L. & Mackenzie, W. I. (2006). Business students’ perception of Employment in small and medium scale enterprises verses multinational  Cooperation. Investigating the moderating effects of academic major, gender and Personality. In Toombs, I.A. (ed) Joint conference proceedings, January 12-15. Tucson: USASBE/SBI

10.    Heyzer, N. (2010). Making the Links: Women's Rights and Empowerment are Key to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Gender and Development, 13 (1): 9-12

11.    Isatou C. (2011).

12.    Challenges faced by female entrepreneurs within Small and Medium-.Scale Enterprises (SMEs): A study of the saloon business in Ghana. Accra: Federich Ebert Foundation ILO (2008), Global Employment Trends for Women. ILO, Geneva

13.    Kothari C.R. (2004). Research Methodology; Methods and Techniques. (2nd. Ed.). New Delhi: New Age International.

14.    Muriungi. F.M. (2012). The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneur. Case of Kenya.

15.    Ngige. F. (2005). Mother operates her Boda boda Taxi with zeal.’ Daily Nation, January 17th 2005. International Journal of Business Administration. 3 (2): 112- 114

16.    Nunnally, J. & Bernstein, I. (2004).Psychometric Theory. (3rd Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

17.    Orwa, H., & Tiagha, E. (2012). Women Entrepreneurship in Kenya's Firms: A Demographic Perspective. New York: Lambert Academic.

18.    Pelham, A. M. (2000). Market Orientation and Other Potential Influences on Performance in Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Firms. Journal of Small Business Management, January 2000.

19.    Robert, D. H., & Michael P. (2002). Entrepreneurship: Starting, Developing and Managing a New Enterprise. Boston: Irwin.

20.    Saunders, M. Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students (4th Ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

21.    Sexton, D. L. (1997). Entrepreneurship research needs and issues. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

22.    Van de Ven, A.H. (1993). The Development of an Infrastructure for Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing. 15 (3): 197–218.

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Regina Okyere-Dankwa, Smile Gavua Dzisi, Seth Okyere-Dankwa

Paper Title:

Examining the Effect of Ghanaian Women in Leadership Positions

Abstract:  Ghanaian women have increased their presence in management positions. However, there is still a gender gap. This research has considered as main referent the studies of 9 countries in Latin America, France and United States of America about aspirations, barriers, challenges, family-work balance and other aspects of women in managerial positions. The researcher adopted descriptive survey with quantitative approach. The sample is composed of 120 women. Most of the participants identified reaching a balance between work, personal life and family as their principal challenge as in Latin America. Some of Ghanaian women also admitted they have encountered difficulties in their careers, including: wage discrimination, gender discrimination, and schedule inflexibility. The result presents other similarities and differences when comparing results with those in Latin America. Both women from Latin America and Ghana have challenge of reaching a balance between work, personal life and family. Consequently, Ghanaian women are more incline to managerial positions because they tend to have fewer children than their counterparts in Latin America.

 management, women, leadership, gender,


1.       Bennet, R. (2002).Cracking the glass ceiling: factors affecting women's advancement into upper management. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 157 -160.
2.       Cardenas, M.( 2014). Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29 (1), 2-24 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

3. Catalyst (2004), Women and Men in US Corporate Leadership: Same Workplace Different Realities, Catalyst,New York, NY, available at:  https://catalyst.org/file/74/women%20and%20men%20in20u.s.%20corporate%20leadership%20same%20workplace,%20different%20realities.pdf

4.       Cusack, K. & Manuh, T. (2009). The architecture for violence against women in Ghana. Gender Studies and human rights documentation centre. Accra. Ghana Eagly, A.H. and Carli, L.L. (2007), Through the Labyrinth: The Truth About How Women Become Leaders, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

5.       Fierman, J. (1990). Why women still don’t hit the top, Fortune, 122(3), 40-62.

6.       Ghana Ststistical Service (2008). Ghana Living Standards Survey: Report of the 5th Round (GLSS 5)

7.       Hewlett, S.A. (2002). Executive woman and the myth of having it all. Harvard Business Review, 8 (4), 66- 74.

8.       Maxfield,S. (2005) Women on the verge of corporate power in Latin America. Osto, MA: Center for Gender in Organizations, Simmons College.

9.       Miller, G. (2002). The Frontier Entrepreneurialism, and Engineers: Women Coping with a Web of Masculinities in an Organizational Culture. Culture and Organization, 8 (2).

10.    Nickie,C. Y Davies,C.(2000). Cultural stereotypes and gendering of senior management. Sociological Review,48 (4), 1 – 19.

11.    Okyere-Dankwa, R. (2015). Empowering Women through Adult literacy. Unpublished Doctorial Thesis. University of Education, Winneba, Ghana                                     

12.    Orsen, B (1992). Academic attainment, assimilation and feminism in Canadian schools of business. Women in Management Review, 7 (3), 5-13.

13.    Sen, a. K., & Metzger, j. E. (2010). Women Leadership and Global Power: Evidence from the United States and Latin America. International Journal of Management & Marketing Research (IJMMR), 3(2), 75-84.

14.    Tang, A. (1999, November, 17). Executive Women at the top: still a very lonely club, New York Times, United States. G1.

15.   Unterhalter, E. (2008). Global values and gender equity in education, needs, rights and Capabilities. In S. Fennel & M.Arnot (eds), Gender education and equality in a globalContext. Oxon.Routhedge pp.19-34

16.    World Bank (2010). World Bank Development Report 2010. Equity and development. Washington: World Bank.

17.    World Bank Report (2009). Regional inequality in secondary school education in Ghana: Policy Brief No. 1,ODI

18.    Zabludovsky, G. (2001).Women managers and diversity programs in Mexico. Journal of Management Development, 20(4).






Ritty Francis, Reena R

Paper Title:

Employee Engagement- the Driving Force Behind Every Vibrant Organization

Abstract:   Employee engagement is a yardstickto measure the degree of association between an employee and his organization. Engaged employees, give more importance to achievement of organizational goals without giving much weightage to remuneration and incentives. Percentages of fully engaged employees in most of the companies are very less. Companies have to rethink that by providing all facilities, it is not necessary for an employee to be fully engaged. Since employee engagement is the internal motivation of an employee, so companies should have equal concern for the entire employee regarding their job and future. Nowadays most of the companies are adopting innovative methods to reduce the attrition level. Our paper is a modest attempt to reveal the importance of employee engagement in corporate world. The engagement levels of various countries have also been included so as to provide insights about engaged employees and disengaged employees and how far disengaged employees indirectly affect the success of an organization.

Employee engagement, disengaged employees, internal motivation, commitment, performance.


1.   Baumruk, R. (2004) ‘The missing link: the role of employee engagement in business success’, Workspan, Vol 47, pp48-52.
2.   Cooper, R. (1997) ‘Applying Emotional Intelligence in the workplace’, Training and Development, Vol 51 No 12, pp31-38.

3.  Crabtree, S. (2005) ‘Engagement keeps the doctor away; A happy employee is a healthy employee, according to a GMJ survey’, Gallup Management Journal, 13th January. Available at: https://gmj.gallup.com/content/default.aspx?ci=14500&pg=1 [Accessed 4th July]

4.   Cufaude, J. (2004) in Lanphear, S. (2004). ‘Are Your Employees Highly Engaged?’ Credit Union Executive Newsletter, 19, 1-2. Credit Union National Association, US.

5.  Frank, F.D., Finnegan, R.P. and Taylor, C.R. (2004) ‘The race for talent: retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century’, Human Resource Planning, Vol 27, No 3, pp12-25.

6.  Freud, S. (1922) in Ferguson, A. (2007) ‘Employee engagement: Does it exist, and if so, how does it relate to performance, other constructs and individual differences?’ [online] Available at: https://www.lifethatworks.com/Employee-Engagement.prn.pdf [Accessed 20th June 2007]

7.   Gubman, E. (2004) ‘From engagement to passion for work: The search for the missing person’, Human Resources Planning, pp42-46.

8.   Kahn, W.A. (1990) ‘Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 33, pp692-724.

9.   Lloyd, J. (2004) ‘Offer empowerment to encourage engagement’, Triangle Business Journal, Vol 15, No 1.

10. Richman, A. (2006) ‘Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it?’ Workspan, Vol 49, pp36-39.

11. Robinson, D., Perryman, S. and Hayday, S. (2004) The Drivers of Employee Engagement. Brighton, Institute for Employment Studies.

12.  Seijts, G.H and Crim, D. (2006) ‘What engages employees the most or, the ten C’s of employee engagement’, Ivey Business Journal, March/April, pp1-5.






J. Thirumaran, V.T Dhanaraj

Paper Title:

Effective Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Practices in Three Southern States Manufacturing Companies in India

Abstract: The green supply chain management consists of those activities associated with manufacturing from raw material acquisition to final product delivery. The recently changed environmental requirements that affect manufacturing operations selling and distribution and transportation systems, growing attention is given to the development of environment management strategies for supply chains. A green supply chain aims at confining the wastes within the industrial system so as to conserve energy and prevent the dissipation of harmful materials into the environment. The aim of this   research paper is to examining the Green practices in the selected   Three Southern States Indian Manufacturing Companies. The main objectives of this paper are to examine the impact of GSCM Practices in south Indian small medium and large scale manufacturing industry in southern industry in India. To find out the green factors influences the GSCM using in south Indian small medium and large scale manufacturing industry in southern industry in India and To identify the various indicators of GSCM Practices in south Indian small medium and large scale manufacturing industry in southern industry in India.

GSCM, Industry, Management, Associated, Changed Environmental, Indian Manufacturing Companies,


1.     Qinghua Zhu, Joseph Sarkis & Kee-hung Lai, “Green Supply Chain Management: Pressures, Practices and Performance within the Chinese Automobile Industry,” (2006).
2.     Chung-Hsiao, “The Green supply Chain Management in the Electronic Industry” (2008).

3.     Fengfei Zhou, “Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management in Textile Enterprises,” (2009).

4.     Ninlawan & Tossapol, “The Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Electronics Industry” (2010).

5.     Robert & Benjamin,” Introducing Green Transportation Costs in Supply Chain Modeling”. (2010).

6.     Scupola, A. (2003).The Adoption of Internet Commerce by SMEs in the South of Italy: An Environmental, Technological and Organizational Perspective. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 6(1), 52-71.

7.     Singh, M.D., and Kant, R. (2008). Knowledge management barriers: An Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 3(2), 141-150.ISSN 1750-9653, available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/257085.

8.     Solvang, W.D, Deng, Z., and Solvang B. (2007). A Closed-loop Supply Chain model for managing overall optimization of Eco-efficiency. POMS 18th Annual Conference Dallas, Taxes USA, May 4 to May7, 2007.

9.     Srivastva, S. (2007). Green Supply State of the art Literature Review. International Journal of Management Review, 9(1), 53-80. Doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00202.x

10.  Sarkis, J., Hasan, M.A., Shankar, R. (2007).Evaluating Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing barriers with Interpretive Structural Modeling. Electronic copy of this paper is available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=956954.doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.01.16